Unravelling the when, where and how of volcanic eruptions – Horizon Magazine Blog


Dome-building volcanoes, which are frequently active, are among the most dangerous types of volcanoes since they are known for their explosive activity. This type of volcano often erupts by first quietly producing a dome-shaped extrusion of thick lava at its summit which is too viscous to flow. When it eventually becomes destabilised, it breaks off and produces fast-moving currents of hot gas, solidified lava pieces and volcanic ash, called pyroclastic clouds, that flow down the sides of the volcano at the speed of a fast train.

‘The hazards associated with them can be very spontaneous and hard to predict,’ said Professor Thomas Walter, a professor of volcanology and geohazards at the University of Potsdam in Germany. ‘That’s why it’s so important to understand this phenomenon of lava domes.’

Little is known about the behaviour of lava domes, partly because there isn’t much data available. Prof. Walter and his colleagues want to better understand how they form, whether they can vary significantly in shape and what their internal structure is like. Over the last five years, through a project called VOLCAPSE, they have been using innovative techniques to monitor lava domes by using high resolution radar data captured by satellites as well as close-up views from cameras set up near volcanoes.

‘Pixel by pixel, we could determine how the shape, morphology and structure of these lava domes changed,’ said Prof. Walter. ‘We compared (the webcam images) to satellite radar observations.’

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